The professor can assign admin rights to your account but that is not recommended. Every instance should have only one Administrator account, but if you really need that right permission that can be assign by your professor.
Regarding the MQTT extension or any other extension, they need to be imported only once and after that they are available for any type of account/user.
I would suggest you talk with your professor so he can grant you(better to the whole Developer group) direct access only on those entities that you say you don't access. In order to achieve this please use the Administrators Guide for Educators from here: http://www.thingworx.com/~/media/Files/PDFs/Academics/Academic-Program-Administration-Guide-English.ashx?la=en
I would update a Developer account(like you have at moment) to an Administrator account only as a last result. Having an Administrator account will allow you to make any kind of modifications to the security model of the ThingWorx Platform and by experience i can say this is not a good thing. Most of the modifications are made by mistake and the system objects modification can't be restored and this will imply erasing everything and remaking a brand new hosted instance with no content, so you will loose everything that was ever created on that hosted instance.