Here are some answers:
Windows 2016 is not a supported OS for ThingWorx Analytics Server. The advise would be to use a supported OS. You can find the list of them in the Installation guide under the chapter Prerequisites https://support.ptc.com/WCMS/files/173110/en/ThingWorx-Analytics-Docker-Installation-Guide-8-0.pdf#page=7 .
Note though that there are some limitation in running docker on Windows OS on the cloud due to lack of support for nested virtualization. You probably will be better off using one of the Linux OS if installing on the cloud.
You do not need to install any Tomcat or JDK as docker container, the installer creates its required container.
ThingWorx (if native install not docker) and ThingWorx analytics can run on the same machine, if the OS is supported for both software and the hardware follows the sizing pre-requisite (you would need to add the pre-req of ThingWorx and Anlaytics).
Depending on the activity, it is possibly not something advisable for production use though as both software might impact each other. Machine Learning operations performed by Analytics Server can be very resource demanding, so if running at the same time as ThingWorx, the performance will certainly be impacted.
Hope this helps